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Amateka y’ imyandikire y’ Ikinyarwanda
Publish Date: vendredi 17 octobre 2014
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Ikinyarwanda cyatangiye kwandikwa mu ntangiriro y’imyaka ya 1900 n’abamisiyoneri b’abera bashakaga kugikoresha ngo bacengeze iyobokamana rishya mu Banyarwanda.

Mu myaka ijana ishize, handitswe byinshi ndetse hakorwa inama nyinshi hagamijwe kunoza imyandikire y’Ikinyarwanda. Ariko kandi gushyiraho imyandikire ikurikizwa na bose byakomeje kuba ikibazo cy’insobe.

Byaba ibitekerezo byagiye bitangwa mu nyandiko nyinshi n’inama zagiye ziga icyo kibazo, utaretse amabwiriza yagiye ashyirwaho kuva mu wa 1939 kugeza mu wa 2004, ntabwo byashoboye kugeza abakoresha Ikinyarwanda ku myandikire izira guhuzagurika.

Iyi nyandiko irerekana uko imyandikire y’Ikinyarwanda yagiye itekerezwa n’uko yagiye ihinduka kuva mu 1900 kugeza mu myaka ya vuba aha. Haribandwa ku nyandiko zagaragaje umwihariko mu mahame bene zo bashingiragaho imyandikire y’amajwi shingiro y’Ikinyarwanda.

Isesengura rikurikira rishingiye ku cyerekezo nyogahihe cyangwa njyabihe, ni ukuvuga kureba impinduka zagiye ziba mu myandikire y’Ikinyarwanda uko imyaka yagiye ihita.

1. Imyandikire ya Padiri Hurel Eugène (1911)

Mu gitabo yanditse mu wa 1911 yise Manuel de grammaire Kinyarwanda, Padiri Eugène Hurel yagize ati « uko twandika Ikinyarwanda ubu ni ko Abanyarwanda batwigiraho gusoma no kwandika bazajya bandika ». Ku byerekeye amasaku we yitaga “accents” yaranditse ati “ntibyoroshye gushyiraho amategeko yerekeye imikoresherezwe n’umwanya w’amasaku. Umuntu abigezwaho n’akamenyero n’ubushishozi”. Kwitiranya amasaku n’iyitsa (accents) byatumye imyandikire y’amasaku imwisoba, ntiyayigeraho.

Ku byerekeye imyandikire y’amajwi y’inteme (segmental phonemes), yabonye ko uburyo bwiza bwo kwandika Ikinyarwanda ari ugushingira inyuguti ku iyigamvugo (phonology), aho kuzishingira ku iyigantego ari byo isesengura ry’ijambo mo uturemajambo (morphology) no ku iyigamajwi (phonetics). Agira ati “iyo umuntu yanditse uko avuga yandika amakosa akabije, yakwandika imigemo yose ibyo yanditse ntibyumvikane”[1]. Uko ni ko yinjije ihame ry’imyandikire ishingiye ku iyigamvugo mu Kinyarwanda n’amategeko agenga ikata n’itakara ry’inyajwi ihera cyangwa itangira ijambo mu nteruro, n’amategeko y’ishushantego.

2. Imyandikire ya Padiri Schumacher Pierre (1921-1931)

Padiri Schumacher P. yashatse guha Ikinyarwanda imyandikire mishya kandi ya gihanga ishingiye ku byo umuntu avuga kandi yumva.

Iyo myandikire yayisobanuye mu rukurikirane rw’inyandiko yise "La phonétique du Kinyarwanda", ari byo kuvuga "Imivugirwe n’imyumvikanire by’Ikinyarwanda" (Iyigamajwi). Iyo nyandiko yasohotse mu bihembwe bitandatu mu igazeti yitwa "Anthropos" yandikirwaga mu Budage, mu nomero ya 16, iya 17, iya 18, iya 19, iya 24 n’iya 26 zo mu myaka ya 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1929 na 1931.

Ibisobanuro bye byari bihanitse, akoresha n’ibimenyetso bimwe bishushanya amajwi atavugwa mu Kinyarwanda, nka /dj ; djy ; rdjy ; bv/, n’ibindi.

Nibura ariko Padiri Schumacher ari mu ba mbere bahangaye ibyo kwandika amasaku nubwo atabigezeho ku buryo bunoze. Ibyo yabikoze mu nkoranyamagambo y’Ikinyarwanda n’Igifaransa “Dictionnaire phonetique Français – Runyarwanda Runyarwanda – Français”yasohoye mu wa 1956.

Yari afite intego yo kuvugurura inkoranya yari yaranditswe na Padiri Hurel mu wa 1926, akayongeramo amasaku, ari na ho yakurije kwita iyo yanditse “dictionnaire phonétique”.

Muri iyo nkoranya, Padiri Schumacher yashinze uburyo bwo kwandika amasaku budahwitse bityo ntibwigera bwitabirwa, ahanini biturutse ku mpamvu zikurikira :

- Yitiranyije amasaku nyayo n’amasaku y’integuza, ay’integuza aba ari yo agira amasaku y’ibanze, ubundi akandika isaku ry’integuza bitari ngombwa ;

- Yavanzeamasaku n’iyitsa ;

- Amasakuamweyaramwisobye and arayitiranya ;

- Yitiranyijeubujyejurun’ubutindebw’inyajwi ;

- Ibimenyetsoyakoresheje mu kwerekanaamasakuntibyaribiboneye.

3. Imyandikire ya Musenyeri Classe Léon (1939).

Amabwiriza ya Musenyeri Classe ni yo yakurikijwe muri Kiriziya Gatorika kuva asohotse. Yarategetse ati « Iyi myandikire muzatangira kuyikuriza mukiyibona. Izakurikizwa kandi mu byandikwa byose muri Vikariyati, uhereye kuri Kinyamateka kuva ku wa mbere Mutarama 1939 ».

Urugero, amabwiriza ya Musenyeri Classe yashinze ibyo gutandukanya inyuguti “l” na “r”, ateganya ko bazajya bandika “l” imbere y’inyajwi “i” (li) n’inyerera “y” (ly) na “r” imbere y’izindi nyajwi cyangwa inyerera “w” (re, ru, ro, ra, rw).

Andi madini nk’Abaporotesintanti, Abadivantisiti, Abayisiramu… yagiye akurikiza imyandikire inyuranye.

4. Imyandikire ya Padiri Nkongori Laurent (1946)

Uwa mbere mu kugira icyo ahindura ku myandikire yashinzwe na Musenyeri L. Classe ni Padiri NkongoriLaurent, mu gitabo yanditse mu wa 1946 akacyita "Ikibonezamvugo cy’amashuri yo mu Rwanda".

Yasanze gutandukanya inyuguti “r” na “l” nta cyo bimaze kuko zidashushanya amajwi anyuranye, ahitamo kwandika“r”ahantu hose.Inyemvugo /nny/ yayandikishije umugemo “ni” ukurikiwe n’inyajwi.

Urugero : kunia aho kuba kunnya

Kimwe n’abanditsi bamubanjirije, Padiri Nkongori ntiyashoboye gucengera amasaku. Yumvise ko abaho ariko ntiyayabona yose. Icyakora ari mu ba mbere bahimbye – niba atari we wa mbere –amagambo y’Ikinyarwanda akoreshwa mu bumenyi bw’ikibonezamvugo cy’Ikinyarwanda.

5. Imyandikire ya Padiri Kagame Alegisi (1960)

Padiri Kagame yashatse gushyiraho imyandikire ishingiye cyane cyane ku isesengura ry’amagambo.

Iyo myandikire yayisobanuye mu wa 1960, mu gitabo yise "La langue du Rwanda et du Burundi expliquée aux autochtones” ndetse ayikoresha mu gitabo “Introduction aux grands genres lyriques de l’ancien Rwanda”no mu bindi bitabo bye.

Inyuguti Musenyeri Classe yari yarashyizeho, Padiri Nkongori akazicenshura, Padiri Kagame yarazifashishiije ashinga ibihekane bishingiye ku iyigantego (ku turemajambo). Umugambi we wari uwo kwandika buri jambo akurikije imiterere yaryo. Iyo miterere yayibonye mu ntangiriro z’amagambo, iyo mu mpera ntiyayibona. Uwo mugambi uwawukurikiza byamugeza ku myandikire ishingiye ku turemajambo.

Dore ingero zimwe :

Urp 66 : i‑n‑numa ‑‑‑> innuma

i‑n‑mungu ‑‑‑> immungu

Urp 69 : i‑n‑nyana ‑‑‑> in’yana

Aha kugira ngo atandukanye inyemvugo /ny/ na /nny/isanzwe, yashinze ko mu ijwi rya kabiri n ya kabiri isimburwa n’agakato.

Urugero : ibyari kwandikwa bitya : “innnyo” (i-n-nnyo) bikaba“in’nyo”.

Uwakwishinga ibyo kwandika ijambo yerekana uturemajambo twaryo byamukururirazimwe mu ngorane zikurikira :

1. Ijwi rimwe ryakwandikishwa inyuguti zinyuranye.

Ingero : z yandikwa n’ibimenyetso 4 bitandukanye.

a. a‑ra‑baz‑a > arabaza = arabaaza

b. a‑ra‑bar‑y‑a > arabarya = arabâza

c. umu‑dod‑yi > umudodyi = umudôzi
d. bi‑ra‑gag‑ye > biragagye = biragaze

2. Amajwi avugwa wasanga atari yo yanditse.

Ingero : amagambo “bibitswe” na “bakoranyijwe” yakwandikwa ku buryo bunyuranye n’uko avugwa.

a. Bi-bik-w-ye >bibikwye = /bibitswe/

b. Ba-koran-ir-y-w-ye >bakoranirywye = /bakoranijwe/bakoranyijwe/

Izi ngero ziragaragaza ibibazo uwandika yari kujya ahura na byo iyo imyandikire ya Padiri Kagame ishingiye ku iyigantego iza kuba ari yo igenderwaho.Icyakora imyandikire ye n’ibimenyetso by’amasaku yakoresheje ntibyitabiriwe mu mashuri.

6. Imyandikire ya André Coupez (1952-1980)

André Coupez yabaye umushakashatsi mu kigo cyitwaga IRSAC cyaje kubyara INRS na IRST nyuma yaho. Yari inzobere mu iyigandimi rireba imiterere y’indimi n’amasano zigirana, cyane cyane indimi bita "bantu". Yageze mu Rwanda mu wa 1952, yiga Ikinyarwanda ashingiye ku byo umwarimu we Meeussen A.E. yari yaragezeho mu Kirundi. Ni we wabimburiye abandi mu kwigisha Abanyarwanda ubumenyi bw’iyigandimi muri IRSAC na INRS, nyuma yaho anabwigisha mu Ishuri Rikuru Nderabarezi (IPN) no muri Kaminuza Nkuru y’u Rwanda.

Ku byerekeye imyandikire y’amajwi y’inteme, A. Coupez nta bintu byinshi yahinduye ku myandikire yari yarashinzwe na Musenyeri Classe, keretse ibi bikurikira :

1. Yifuje ko inyuguti l yava mu itonde ry’Ikinyarwanda.

2. Yahaye itegeko ry’imyandikire imberabyombi ishyizwe mu mazuru. Iryo tegeko rivuga ko inyuguti yo mu gihekane hagati irekwa.

Ingero :

a. impfura ‑‑‑> imfura

b. intsina ‑‑‑> insina

3. Yasabye ko amajwi avugwa kimwe yakwandikwa kimwe.

Ingero :

a. nshira < gucira

b. nshira < gushira

4. Yasabye ko ijambo ryakwandikwa ukwaryo, uretse amagambo y’inyunge n’ay’inyumane.

Amasaku nyejuru y’Ikinyarwanda yayandikishaga agasharu kaberamiye iburyo. Isaku nyejuru ry’integuza yasabye ko ritakwandikwa.

7. Amabwiriza y’imyandikire ya Minisitiri Bagaragaza Thadée (1974)

Mu wa 1974 Minisitiri w’Amashuri yashyizeho amabwiriza yabuzaga ibimenyetso bimwe na bimwe byari byarashyizweho na bamwe mu banditsi bavuzwe haruguru, anagira ibintu yongera ku mabwiriza ya Musenyeri Classe. Aya mabwiriza ya Minisitiri Bagaragaza ni yo ya mbere yari ashyizweho na Leta. Yari agamije gucubya impaka zishingiye ku myandikire zariho nk’uko interuro iyaterura ibigaragaza.

(i) Ibyabujijwe :

a) Kwandika ibimenyetso biranga amasaku.

b) Gukurikiranya inyuguti zisa mu ijambo rimwe.

c) Kwandika ibihekane nv, nf na mh byari byarashinzwe na Kagame.

d) Kwandika ky mu mwanya wa cy.

(ii) Ibyiyongereye ku mabwiriza ya Musenyeri Classe :

a) Kwandika l imbere ya y.

b) Kwandika cy ibanjirijwe n’inyamazuru.

c) Kureka p na t mu bihekane mpf na nts.

d) Gukata inyajwi y’ijambo nyira

e) Gufatanya amagambo menshi agize izina rimwe.

8. Ibitekerezo byatanzwe n’Inama ya mbere y’Igihugu ku myandikire y’ikinyarwanda (1978)

Minisiteri y’Uburezi bw’Igihugu yaje gusanga amabwiriza yari yarashyizeho atanoze, itumiza Inama y’Igihugu ngo ishyireho imyandikire iboneye.

Iyo nama yateraniye mu Biro Nteganyanyigisho by’Amashuri Yisumbuye, kuva ku wa 28 kugeza ku wa 31 Werurwe 1978. Yari igizwe n’abantu 13 bari batoranyijwe mu barimu, mu bakozi ba Leta, mu bigo byigenga n’ibigengwa na Leta no mu bikorera ku giti cyabo bazwiho ubumenyi bw’Ikinyarwanda.

Abari bayirimo bagerageje koroherana, abashaka imyandikire ishingiye ku buhanga bakajya bageraho bakorohera abagitsimbaraye ku bya kera, aba ba nyuma na bo bakajya banyuzamo bakemera ibisobanuro by’ubuhanga bahawe.

Mu kwanzura, iyo nama yatanze ibi byifuzo :

1. Kwandika r yonyine mu magambo y’Ikinyarwanda no mu magambo y’amanyamahanga yafashe.

2. Kwandika igihekane bw ahantu hose, ndetse no mu ijambo Kabwayi.

3. Kwandika ge, gi, gyo, gyu, gya, ke, ki, kyo, kyu, kya mu mwanya wa jye, jyi, jyo, jyu, jya, cye, cyi, cyo, cyu, cya.

4. Kwandika nf, nv, ns, nsh aho kwandika mpf, mf, mv, nts, nc.

5. Kwandika nshy aho kwandika nky.

6. Kwandika mp aho kwandika mh.
7. Kutandika w mu migemo gwo, gwu, kwo, kwu, hwo, hwu ;

8. Kutandika nn, mm, n’y, n’ny, jj, zz.

9. Gutandukanya amagambo agize izina nteruro.

10. Gukata amagambo na na nka.

9. Imyandikire yateganywaga n’inama ya GERLA /UNR (1981)

GERLA mu magambo arambuye y’Igifaransa bivuga“Groupe d’Etudes et de Recherches en Linguistique Appliquée”yari itsinda ry’ubushakashatsi ku iyigandimi ngiro rigizwe n’abarimu n’abashakashatsi mu iyigandimi nyarwanda, ryavukiye muri Kaminuza Nkuru y’u Rwanda.

Inama GERLA yakoresheje yabereye i Ruhande muri Kaminuza Nkuru y’u Rwanda, kuva ku wa 3 kugeza ku wa 6 Kamena 1981. Yari ikoranyije abantu 26, igamije kwiga ibyerekeye imyandikire y’Ikinyarwanda. Ibyavugiwe muri iyo nama n’imyanzuro yayifatiwemobyegeranyirijwe mu gitabo GERLA yasohoye mu wa 1983 cyitwa “Notation et orthographe du Kinyarwanda”.

Dore bimwe mu by’ingenzi abo bashakashatsi bifuzaga :

(i) Gukura inyuguti l mu itonde ry’Ikinyarwanda.

(ii) Gusimbuza ny, sh na shy

(iii) Kutandika ingombajwi ebyiri zisa.

(iv) Kwandika ibihekane mh, mv, mf.

(v) Kwandika gy, ky mu mwanya wa jy, cy.

(vi) Mu ijambo Kabgayi, kureka g hakandikwa w.

(vii) Kwerekanisha ubutinde inyajwi yanditse kabiri.

(viii) Kwerekanisha ubujyejuru aka kamenyetso (^).

Inama ya GERLA yabaye nk’isembuye ibitekerezo, bituma abahanga mu iyigandimi nyarwanda benshi basohora inyandiko kuri iyo ngingo. Twavuga nk’inyandiko ya Gasana Anastase yise « L’orthographe pratique d’une langue en général avec application au kinyarwanda » yasohotse mu igazetiUburezi, Ubuhanga n’Umuco/Education, Science et Culture, n°7, urup.51-77. Iyi nyandiko yari ishingiye ku kiganiro uyu mucengerandimi yatanze mu “Nama ku myigishirize y’Ikinyarwanda mu mashuri yisumbuye” yakoreshejwe na Minisiteri y’Amashuri Abanza n’Ayisumbuye i Kigali kuva tariki ya 27 kugeza ku ya 29 Kamena 1982.Twavuga kandi inyandiko ya Ntitenguha François-Xavier yise “L’enseignement de l’orthographe au secondaire » (Imyigishirize y’imyandikire y’Ikinyarwanda mu mashuri yisumbuye) na yo yatangajwe muri iyo nama.

Muri uwo mwaka kandi (1982) ni bwo twabonye inyandiko yasohowe na Karani Jean Bosco wari ukuriye agashami k’Ikinyarwanda mu Biro Nteganyanyigisho by’Amashuri Yisumbuye igira iti « Considérations sur certaines fautes et hésitations dans l’orthographe du Kinyarwanda » (amakosa n’ihuzagurika biboneka mu myandikire y’Ikinyarwanda). Iyi nyandiko yasohotse mu igazeti yitwaga Uburezi, Ubuhanga n’Umuco/Education, Science et Culture, n°1 ku rupapuro rwa105-123.

Kuvuga ihuzagurika byavugaga ko amabwiriza yariho yari akwiye kuvugururwa. Iyo mpuruza yarumviswe maze Leta ikoranya Inama ya Kabiri y’Igihugu ku myandikire y’Ikinyarwanda, iteranira i Nyakinama muri Kanama 1983.

10. Imyandikire yateganywaga n’Inama ya Kabiri y’Igihugu ku myandikire y’Ikinyarwanda (1983)

Inama ya Kabiri y’Igihugu igena imyandikire y’Ikinyarwanda yabereye i Nyakinama, kuva ku wa 8 kugeza ku 13 Kanama 1983, itumijwe na Minisiteri y’Amashuri Abanza n’Ayisumbuye.

Inama y’i Nyakinama yasuzumye imyandikire yose yari yaragezweho, imyanzuro yayo iyishyikiriza Minisiteri y’Amashuri Abanza n’Ayisumbuye.

Muri rusange imyanzuro yayo yakiriwe neza n’abari bashishikajwe no guha Ikinyarwanda imyandikire inoze.

Mu banditse ku byayivugiwe muri iyo nama harimo Mwumvaneza Médard wanditse inyandiko igira iti « Imyandikire y’ikinyarwanda ikwiye kuvugururwa » yasohotse mu Mvaho, n° 493, yo ku wa 22-28 Kanama 1983. Muri icyo gihe kandi Francis Jouannet (1984), umuhanga mu iyigandimi wigishaga muri Kaminuza Nkuru y’u Rwanda akaba n’inzobere mu bumenyi bw’amasaku yasohoye mu nomero ya 11 y’igazeti Uburezi, Ubuhanga n’Umuco/Education, Science et Culture inyandiko yise « L’orthographe du kinyarwanda, langue nationale et officielle du Rwanda” ari byo kuvuga mu Kinyarwanda “Imyandikire y’Ikinyarwanda, nk’ururimi rw’Igihugu n’ururimi rw’ubutegetsi mu Rwanda” (urup.99-111).

11. Amabwiriza ya Minisitiri Nsekalije Aloys (1985)

Aya mabwiriza yo mu wa 1985 yari ashingiye ku myanzuro y’Inama ya Kabiri y’Imyandikire y’Ikinyarwanda yabereye i Nyakinama mu wa 1983. Ariko mbere yo kugira iyo myanzuro amabwiriza yo mu wa 1985, hari ibintu bimwe Minisiteri yahinduyemo, nko kurekera mu izina Kabwayi igihekane bg iyi nama yari yifuje ko kitagira aho gihinguka, gukomeza kwandika jyi, jye, cyi, cye, nc, n’ibindi.

Gusa ugereranyije n’amabwiriza ya Minisitiri Bagaragaza, amabwiriza ya Nsekalije yari akungahaye kuko yavuze ku bintu bitari biri mu ya Bagaragaza. Umuntu yabikubira nko mu ngingo esheshatu :

1. Urutonde rw’inyuguti n’ibihekane bikoreshwa mu kwandika amajwi shingiro y’Ikinyarwanda.

2. Kugabanya ikoreshwa ry’inyuguti l

3. Itandukana ry’amagambo.

4. Kwemera inyajwi mu magambo amwe n’amwe no kwerekana ubutinde n’imiterere y’amasaku mu nyandiko ya gihanga.

5. Imyandikire y’amazina bwite.

6. Imikoreshereze y’inyuguti nkuru n’ibimenyetso by’utwatuzo.

Aya mabwiriza ni yo yakwiriye cyane nubwo adakurikizwa kimwe na bose.

12. Amabwiriza y’imyandikire y’Umunyamabanga wa Leta Mujawamariya Jeanne d’Arc (2004)

Amabwiriza avuguruye y’Umunyamabanga wa Leta ushinzwe Amashuri Abanza n’Ayisumbuye yo mu wa 2004 afatiye ku ya Minisitiri Nsekalije, yongewemo ibintu bimwe na bimwe. Dore ingero zimwe :

- Gufatanya amagambo “ku wa” riterura amatariki n’iminsi (kuwa 3 Nzeri).
- Kudakata inyajwi isoza ikinyazina wa kibanjirije umubare w’umwaka (mu wa1985).
- Ingingo itari iyo mu myandikire ahubwo yerekeranye n’iyigantego ivuga inteko z’amazina y’Ikinyarwanda.

Umwanzuro

Umuntu yakwanzura avuga ko uwashinze bwa mbere imyandikire y’Ikinyarwanda (Padiri Eugène Hurel) yarebye kure, kuko ari we winjije mu Kinyarwanda ihame ry’imyandikire ishingiye ku iyigamvugo (phonology). Ibyo yabikoze mu gihe ubu bumenyi bw’iyigamvugo bwari butaranatera imbere ku isi. Imyandikire ye ni na yo ahanini amabwiriza yaje gushyirwaho na Musenyeri Classe yo muwa 1939 yari ashingiyeho. Aya mabwiriza yaje atanga umurongo ngenderwaho nubwo utakurikiwe n’abandikaga bose icyo gihe.

Icyakora amabwiriza ya Musenyeri Classe ntiyaciye akajagari kuko abanditsi banyuranye bakomeje gushyiraho imyandikire inyuranye na yo ndetse bakayisakaza mu bitabo bandikaga wasangaga ari na byo bikoreshwa mu mashuri. Urugero ni nka ba Padiri Nkongoli na Kagame, ndetse n’umushakashatsi Coupez.

Umwaka wa 1974 ni uw’ingenzi mu mateka y’imyandikire y’Ikinyarwanda kuko muri uwo mwaka ari bwo bwa mbere hagiyeho amabwiriza y’imyandikire yemejwe na Leta. Kuva ubwo buri ntera y’ivugurura yagiye izana iterambere haba mu kunoza amahame ngenderwaho no mu gukumira akajagari.

Nubwo bimeze bityo ariko, ubushakashatsi buheruka gukorwa bwerekanye ko hakiriibikeneye kunozwa mu myandikire y’Ikinyarwanda. Byongeye kandi, ni ngombwa kumvikana ku mahame ngenderwaho mu kugena imyandikire yemewe y’Ikinyarwanda no kuyakurikiza kuko ari yo pfundo ry’ihuzagurika rikigaragara mu myandikire y’Ikinyarwanda, aho usanga abantu bigenera uburyo bandika bigatera kutandika kimwe.

Muri iki gihe Inteko Nyarwanda y’Ururimi n’Umuco (RALC) ni rwo rwego rushinzwe kurengera, kuboneza no guteza imbere ururimi rw’Ikinyarwanda. Imwe mu ntego za vuba yihaye kuva yatangira gukora ni ukuvugurura amabwiriza y’imyandikire y’Ikinyarwanda, kugira ngo ihuzagurika riri mu myandikire y’Ikinyarwanda ricike.

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IBITEKEREZO
rugema

Bwana GIHANA Innocent, Ibyo uvuze nibyo ko twareka abize "sciences" z'ururimi akaba aribo barusesengura bihagije bakanatanga ibitekerezo ku buryo bw'imyandikire y'ikinyarwanda. Ariko rero ibyo tubona ubu, ni uko abo uvuga ko bize "sciences" z'ururimi, nabo ubwabo batumvikana ku myandikire mishya y'ikinyarwanda, bikaba bituruka cyane cyane kubabigishije nabo batagiye bumvikana. Niba warize indimi muri Kaminuza ukigishwa na Padiri Alexis KAGAME, undi akaba yarize indimi muri Kaminuza akigishwa na André Coupez-Kamanzi, ntabwo muzashobora kuvuga rumwe ku myandikire y'ikinyarwanda mishyashya. Ibi bivuze ko, hagomba gushyirwaho Inama nkuru y'igihugu irimo abahanga mu yigandimi hamwe n'incabwenge zisobanukiwe ururimi rw'ikinyarwanda, iyo nama ikazaba ariyo yiga neza kuri iki kibazo, noneho igatanga ibitekerezo byashingirwaho mu gushyiraho amabwiriza mashyashya ku myandikire mishya y'ikinyarwanda.

Gihana Innocent

Nabashuhuje. Icyo numva cyiza (kiza) ni uko (nuko) twese tumenya ko ururimi si statique (ikitanyeganyega), ururimi ni dynamique(ikinyeganyega, gihinduka). ikinyarwanda cyahindurwa amwe mu magambo. si guca inka mabere. yemwe rwanatira n'andi magambo, rwakosorwa, rwatira amagambo y'amahanga n'ibindi. si igikuba kuvaga Radio, ICT, n'ibindi . Tuberekere abize indimi nka science badufashe. Twese ni tuzana amaranga mutima tuzavangira abo ba scientifiques baminuje mo by'indimi kandi twese tutarize linguistique. Tubahe rugari badufashe naho ubundi hari ibibazo mu kinyarwanda.Ariko natwe tukaba twumva ko byose twabikoraho tukabigiramo uruhare. Sibyo. Ni uko njye byumva bitabujije abandi kubyumva mabusanya. uwize imibare ko we se batamuvangira. uwize murekere domaine ye.

Gihana Innocent

Nabashuhuje. Icyo numva cyiza (kiza) ni uko (nuko) twese tumenya ko ururimi si statique (ikitanyeganyega), ururimi ni dynamique(ikinyeganyega, gihinduka). ikinyarwanda cyahindurwa amwe mu magambo. si guca inka mabere. yemwe rwanatira n'andi magambo, rwakosorwa, rwatira amagambo y'amahanga n'ibindi. si igikuba kuvaga Radio, ICT, n'ibindi . Tuberekere abize indimi nka science badufashe. Twese ni tuzana amaranga mutima tuzavangira abo ba scientifiques baminuje mo by'indimi kandi twese tutarize linguistique. Tubahe rugari badufashe naho ubundi hari ibibazo mu kinyarwanda.Ariko natwe tukaba twumva ko byose twabikoraho tukabigiramo uruhare. Sibyo. Ni uko njye byumva bitabujije abandi kubyumva mabusanya. uwize imibare ko we se batamuvangira. uwize murekere domaine ye.

Gihana Innocent

Nabashuhuje. Icyo numva cyiza (kiza) ni uko (nuko) twese tumenya ko ururimi si statique (ikitanyeganyega), ururimi ni dynamique(ikinyeganyega, gihinduka). ikinyarwanda cyahindurwa amwe mu magambo. si guca inka mabere. yemwe rwanatira n'andi magambo, rwakosorwa, rwatira amagambo y'amahanga n'ibindi. si igikuba kuvaga Radio, ICT, n'ibindi . Tuberekere abize indimi nka science badufashe. Twese ni tuzana amaranga mutima tuzavangira abo ba scientifiques baminuje mo by'indimi kandi twese tutarize linguistique. Tubahe rugari badufashe naho ubundi hari ibibazo mu kinyarwanda.Ariko natwe tukaba twumva ko byose twabikoraho tukabigiramo uruhare. Sibyo. Ni uko njye byumva bitabujije abandi kubyumva mabusanya. uwize imibare ko we se batamuvangira. uwize murekere domaine ye.

Gihana Innocent

Nabashuhuje. Icyo numva cyiza (kiza) ni uko (nuko) twese tumenya ko ururimi si statique (ikitanyeganyega), ururimi ni dynamique(ikinyeganyega, gihinduka). ikinyarwanda cyahindurwa amwe mu magambo. si guca inka mabere. yemwe rwanatira n'andi magambo, rwakosorwa, rwatira amagambo y'amahanga n'ibindi. si igikuba kuvaga Radio, ICT, n'ibindi . Tuberekere abize indimi nka science badufashe. Twese ni tuzana amaranga mutima tuzavangira abo ba scientifiques baminuje mo by'indimi kandi twese tutarize linguistique. Tubahe rugari badufashe naho ubundi hari ibibazo mu kinyarwanda.Ariko natwe tukaba twumva ko byose twabikoraho tukabigiramo uruhare. Sibyo. Ni uko njye byumva bitabujije abandi kubyumva mabusanya. uwize imibare ko we se batamuvangira. uwize murekere domaine ye.


TANGA IGITEKEREZO

Kwamamaza
Kwamamaza
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